The ketogenic diet, after becoming known to the general public, immediately attracted attention and became a favorite among pop stars. Doctors, nutritionists, doctors and athletes have not yet reached a consensus on its effect and effectiveness, but the number of supporters of this diet is growing every year.
What is the keto diet?
The keto dietis a low-carb, high-fat, moderate-protein diet.
The intake of nutrients in the daily diet is divided as follows:
- up to 10% carbohydrates;
- 50-60% fat;
- 30-40% protein.
Due to the low carbohydrate content in the daily menu, the body converts lipids into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The latter enter the brain and serve as a source of energy instead of glucose. This process is called ketosis, hence the name diet.
The essence of the keto child
The peculiarity of the diet insists on the absolute exclusion of fast-digesting carbohydrates and most complexes, as well as caffeinated beverages. The diet is based on fatty meat and saturated fats.
This diet puts the body in a state of stress in which acetone (ketone bodies) is dynamically produced. The latter, in turn, helps to suppress appetite. In ketosis, the body is forced to rebuild to burn a layer of subcutaneous fat.
Initially, this dietary method was not intended to combat obesity. It was believed to be an excellent aid in the treatment of certain diseases and rehabilitation in the postoperative period.
It is suitable for those who want to quickly lose a few feelings of subcutaneous fat, for athletes who strive for relief, and is also used in the rehabilitation of patients with epilepsy and oncology. This food technique is a rather complex and delicate process.
It is based on the following principles:
- reducing the amount of carbohydrates consumed to a minimum;
- strict control of sugar and starch entering the body;
- maintaining a drinking balance;
- moderate physical activity;
- maintaining the proportion of fat in the daily diet to 60%;
- protein to fat ratio 1: 2;
- unobstructed entry and exit from the diet.
Based on the above principles, the basic rules are logically formed, in accordance with which it is necessary to change the way of life so that adherence to the keto diet would not be a reckless and uncontrolled process that can significantly worsen the condition of the body.
So, diet rules:
- A decrease in the amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet occurs during the first 8-14 days.
- The number of main meals is at least 5 a day, but 7 is already a lot.
- You should eat every 3, 5-4 hours.
- Follow the part - it should be small.
- It is advisable to avoid snacks between "sanctioned" meals.
- The effect of a child comes only with strict adherence to it.
- It is necessary to increase the amount of clean water consumed to 3 liters per day.
- For people who want to adhere to this dietary method, without medical indications, a specialist consultation is required.
- Don’t worry about the amount of lipids in your daily menu - with this style of diet, they are a major source of energy for the human body.
- The intensity of physical activity should not be too high.
- To get into ketosis as quickly as possible, some people practice fasting. Such a radical method is possible, but only if there are no contraindications and a completely healthy and strong organism.
A diet on a keto diet means avoiding one food and heavily “leaning” on another. To better control and calculate the amount of nutrients, the tables below show the preferred and prohibited foods.
Product List Permissions:
- meat products, poultry;
- fish, seafood;
- sausages, mayonnaise;
- some vegetables, herbs;
- dried fruits, nuts;
- milk, eggs;
- oils, fats;
- soft drinks.
When the ketogenic diet is strictly forbidden:
- starchy vegetables;
- pasta and bakery products, flour;
- some fruits and juices;
- carbonated drinks and caffeinated beverages;
- sweet milk and alcoholic beverages.
Diet to initiate and maintain ketosis
The essence of the ketogenic diet, as mentioned earlier, is that the body replaces glycolysis with lipolysis. Simply put, it “switches” from carbohydrate breakdown to fat breakdown. This process is called ketosis.
When the amount of carbohydrates ingested daily reaches a minimum of 50 g, ketone formation begins. From this moment, the body begins to draw energy from fat cells, that is, the weight loss process begins.
Entry into ketosis does not occur immediately. It takes the body almost a week to transition to the desired lipolysis.
This happens in four stages:
- Phase 1. Unconditional glucose consumption.Within half a day after the last meal produced, the body will consume glucose.
- Phase 2. Glycogen processing.After glucose, the body moves to glycogen stores from the liver and muscles. It takes almost 48 hours.
- Phase 3. Fat and protein processing.After the body runs out of carbohydrates, from which energy has returned, it switches to the synthesis of muscle fibers and fatty acids. This is the most difficult step on the road to ketone formation.
- Phase 4. Fat Consumption.Ketosis itself. When the body gets used to the minimum of carbohydrates and the process of burning protein becomes slower, then the consumption of fatty acids begins.
A diet for active fat burning and, consequently, maintenance of ketosis is based on the principle of absolute fat preference in the menu.
- fat - from 60 to 75%;
- proteins - from 25 to 35%;
- carbohydrates - up to 10%.
Note thatshould not stop counting calories.The keto diet, like other nutritional practices, requires nutrient management. Especially if the goal of observation is weight loss.
To calculate the required amount of nutrients per day, you can use a simple calculation: 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrates and fats are allocated in percentages.
For example, if a person weighs 80 kg, 80 g of protein, 300 g of lipids and 20 g of charcoal per day are needed. If you feel weak during the transition period (first week), then you can increase the number of grams of the last nutrient, but not more than 50 units.
There is no basic gender difference in formulating the right diet. Basically, if you do not take into account the type of keto diet, then the female and male menus differ in the amount of protein consumed. Men need more nutrients to maintain muscle mass.
Sample weekly keto diet menu
The approximate budget menu for men looks like this:
|1||First:omelette - 80 g, beef cutlet - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken breast - 130 g, vegetable salad - 130g, jelly - 230 g
Third:cottage cheese - 160 g
Fourth:roasted fish with herbs - 120 g, brown rice - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|2||First:brown rice pudding - 160 g, toast, tea - 120 g
Second:meat borscht - 240 g, chicken zrazy - 80 g, cabbage salad - 80 g, jelly - 150 g
Third:protein shake - 300 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 180 g, toast with cheese - 70 g, tea - 200 g
|3||First:Scrambled eggs with ham - 150 g, croutons - 15 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken soup - 180 g, beef medallions - 90g, vegetable salad - 140 g, tea - 180 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:mushrooms baked in the oven - 120 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|4||First:steamed fish cakes - 160 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:borscht - 270 g, meat salad- 110 g, jelly - 100 g
Third:omelet - 120 g
Fourth:red fish - 110 g, toast with cheese - 60 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 250 g
|5||First:boiled eggs - 3 pcs., baked fillet - 120 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Other:puree - 260 g, meat salad - 130 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:tincture of rosehip - 250 g, toast - 20 g
Fourth:roasted fish - 180 g, vegetable salad - 120 g, tea - 200 g
|6||First:omelette - 120 g, cottage cheese - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:fish soup - 260 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, chicken chops - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Third:green apple puree - 70 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 160 g, boiled chicken - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|7||First:casserole with mushrooms - 180 g, croutons - 10 g, tea - 200 g
Second:chicken soup - 160 g, beef cutlets - 160g, vegetable salad - 80 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:cottage cheese - 80 g
Fourth:boiled fish - 130 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 180 g
Sample menu for women:
|1||First:omelet - 130 g, meat salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:meat soup - 210 g, stewed brown rice with vegetables- 180 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:roasted fish - 150 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:fermented baked milk - 250 g
|2||First:fish cutlet - 80 g, toast with ham - 75 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:borscht - 200 g, fish cutlet- 75 g, meat salad - 125 g
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:beef items - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|3||First:scrambled eggs with ham - 80 g, salad with cucumber and eggs - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Other:poultry soup - 210 g, rabbit cutlet - 110 g, fresh vegetables - 80 g
Third:omelet - 160 g
Fourth:roasted fish - 90 g, zucchini pancakes - 130 g, jelly - 150 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|4||First:boiled eggs - 3 pcs., meat salad - 160 g, walnuts - 30 g
Second:fish soup - 230 g, meat medallions -80 g, vegetable salad - 110 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:beef pate - 60 g, cucumber salad - 120 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:fermented baked milk - 250 g
|5||First:turkey fillet - 120 g, meat salad - 110 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:vegetable soup - 170 g, roasted fishwith brown rice - 170 g
Third:nuts –30 g
Fourth:mushrooms fried with ham and vegetables - 230 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 220 g
|6||First:cottage cheese - 130 g, pomegranate tea - 130 g
Second:chicken soup - 130 g, pork chop in cheese dough - 120г
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:sausages, ham, tea - 220 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|7||First:omelet - 120 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:mushroom soup with meat - 160 g, fried fish - 80 g, vegetable salad - 100 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:rolls - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 200 g
This type of diet is not "hungry", so choosing and combining dishes is not difficult. Here are a few recipes that are easy enough to prepare and are still in ketosis.
Special keto bread
- eggs - 3 squirrels;
- Almond flour - 0. 25 cups
- water - 0, 25 cups;
- chopped plantain - 50 g;
- baking powder - 10 g;
- apple cider vinegar - 10 g;
- sea salt - 5 g;
- sesame seeds (optional).
- mix flour, plantain and baking powder;
- boil water, pour into a bowl with dry ingredients;
- add protein and vinegar;
- mix the mass with a mixer for 2-3 minutes, until it becomes suitable for sculpting;
- for forming future breads in any form;
- place them on a greased baking sheet;
- sprinkle with sesame seeds on top and place in the oven;
- Bake on the bottom shelf at 200 degrees for about an hour;
- readiness is determined by knocking on the bottom of the cake;
- The finished bread gives an “empty” sound.
Salmon baked with asparagus
- salmon (fillet) - 1000 g;
- asparagus - 130 g;
- mushrooms - 250 g;
- onion - 40 g;
- garlic - 3 cloves; soy sauce - 300 ml;
- sesame oil - 10g;
- butter - 20 g;
- basil - 3 years
- mix soy sauce, basil and garlic;
- cut the fish fillet into pieces, place in an airtight bag, pour over the resulting sauce with spices;
- and marinate in the refrigerator for 60 minutes;
- preheat oven to 180 degrees;
- after the time has elapsed, place the baking sheet covered with foil with the fish and asparagus in the oven; cook
- for 20 minutes;
- meanwhile fry mushrooms and onions in a pan;
- then pour this mixture over the fish being cooked; Bake for another 10 minutes.
Chicken casserole with cheese and olives
- chicken (breast) - 700 g;
- pesto sauce - 90 g;
- cream (whipped cream) - 400 ml;
- olives (pickled) - 200 g;
- feta cheese - 250 g;
- garlic -1 wedge;
- frying oil;
- oil (olive) - 40 g;
- salt (sea) - 10 g.
- wash the meat, cut it into pieces, salt;
- fry on both sides until golden brown;
- in a bowl, mix the cream and pesto;
- put the chicken in a baking dish;
- top with chopped garlic, olives and cheese;
- Drizzle with cream sauce;
- bake in the oven at 200 degrees for half an hour;
- when the edges of the pan become sandy, you can take them out - the pan is done.
- beef - 2 pieces, boneless;
- onion - 1 pc;
- garlic - 1 wedge;
- tomato - 2 pcs. ;
- vinegar (cider) - 50 g;
- oil (olive) –30 g;
- ground ginger - 7 g;
- salt (sea) - 2 g.
- Rinse the meat, make shallow cuts on top of the steak;
- Peel an onion, cut into small cubes;
- Chop the tomatoes into cubes;
- put steaks in a preheated pan greased with olive oil;
- brown on both sides over medium heat;
- then add diced tomatoes, garlic and crushed garlic to the meat; fry
- with occasional stirring for 5-7 minutes;
- put ginger in a special bowl, add salt, pour vinegar;
- add the resulting sauce to the meat, stir;
- ignited minimum intensity; cook
- under a closed lid until the liquid evaporates; Sprinkle
- with herbs when serving.
The effectiveness of the keto diet
As already mentioned, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of this dietary method. The keto diet is controversial. It has contraindications, advantages and disadvantages. Not suitable for everyone.
But one thing is for sure - subject to proper rules and principles of nutrition, a person who sticks to a ketogenic diet is “doomed” to lose 1 to 3 pounds a week. It is widely used by celebrities to get rid of extra inches, athletes to create a relief body, and is also prescribed for certain diseases.
To increase the efficiency of the diet, it is recommended to follow some rules:
- Choose a vitamin and mineral complexto support the body.
- It is mandatory to undergo a medical examination,to make sure that there are no contraindications for this diet. A ketogenic diet, except in some cases, requires “iron” health.
- Carefully analyze the possibility of withdrawal from specific products.If it is not possible to limit yourself, for example, in the consumption of bread or pasta, then it is better to choose another dietary method so as not to get into even greater stress.
- In the first or second week, while the metabolic process is renewed, try not to lead the lifestyle to fanatical activitiesand do not plan too much physical and mental stress. When the body enters a ketotic state, it is unlikely that there will be an increase in any sports and mental performance.
- It takes some time and skill to get into the habit of cooking properly while sticking to keto.Therefore, try to plan your day so that there is no possibility for an “unauthorized” snack.
- To minimize the negative effects of diet, it is necessary to remember to include in a diet rich in fiber.Improve and normalize the digestive tract.
- It is unlikely that the unpleasant smell of acetone can be avoided, so it is recommended to double the intake of clean water.Proper water balance is the key to effective weight loss.
- Maintaining electrolyte balance is equally important in the process of dealing with unnecessary inches of body fat.Slightly salted foods will not only improve the taste of food, but also positively affect well-being.
Based on the tasks (whether it is weight loss, drying, weight gain, etc. ), the required diet is selected.
Classic (standard or basic)
- This species is considered the most common and simplest diet.
- It is characterized by a high content of fat in the diet, medium protein and an extremely minimal amount of carbohydrates.
- Recommended for people with little or no physical activity.
- This type involves adding carbohydrates to the diet, but at a certain time and in a certain amount.
- So-called carbohydrate loads occur on training days.
- To increase endurance and intensity, carbon is ingested during training hours (before and after training).
- On rest days, in order to maintain ketosis, the amount of carbohydrates is minimal (0, 5 or 1 g per kg of body weight), the fat level is slightly reduced so as not to exceed the calorie content in the daily diet.
- This is an "advanced" option. This involves periodically “feeding” carbohydrates.
- The break between “sets” of carbs depends on the goals, objectives, and intensity of the exercise.
- At the same time, the weight of fat in the diet decreases, proteins and 7-10 g of charcoal increase per 1 kg of body weight.
- Download time is from 8 to 36 hours.
- Intervals can be increased, taking into account the condition of the body.
- Recommended for people with high physical activity who feel weak due to lack of carbohydrates.
- those who want to lose weight, dry out, gain muscle mass;
- for epilepsy;
- for oncological diseases.
- This eating technique is not "hungry". Feelings of hunger are extremely rare.
- Changing metabolism through ketosis promotes faster weight loss compared to other methods.
- There is no clear order of menu formation, the dishes are quite varied. You just need to follow the formula of nutrient intake.
- Proven value of adhering to a keto diet for cancer, epilepsy and other diseases.
- Ketogenic white-listed diet foods have a low glycemic index. Eating them in food has a positive therapeutic effect and helps treat acne.
- Very low probability of losing muscle mass along with a high percentage of subcutaneous fat burning.
Along with the positive effects of following a keto diet, this technique is not without its drawbacks:
- Dietary imbalance.
- Odor of acetone from the mouth, from the skin.
- Entering ketosis, you often feel nausea, fatigue, lethargy and problems with concentration.
- There are contraindications.
- Frequent constipation (or other bowel problems) due to lack of essential vegetables and fruits in the diet.
This dietary technique was originally invented to treat epileptic seizures in adults and children.
Doctors have discovered that ketogens are created during the processing of fats in the body, and it is they who have the ability to reduce the frequency of seizures in children and adults with epilepsy.
Because the diet is unbalanced and fatty foods can lead to liver and kidney problems, experts are skeptical of this diet. In medical practice, there are an equal number of positive and extremely negative results of his appointment.
The decision to use a ketogenic diet with epileptics is made only by an expert. Technique treatment is carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor!
Studies have shown that in people with cancer, the combination of conventional therapy and a ketogenic diet reduces the risk of metastasis and recurrence of the disease by 75%.
Unlike those patients who normally eat, followers of the keto diet feel better, the body recovers faster, and treatment has a positive trend. The state of ketosis deprives cancer cells of energy, makes them hungry, which significantly improves the efficiency of radiation and chemotherapy.
As mentioned above, the keto diet has a number of contraindications.
You can't stick to this when:
- breastfeeding and pregnancy;
- high cholesterol levels;
- diabetes mellitus;
- presence of kidney, gastrointestinal tract, heart disease;
- lipid digestion disorder;
- hormonal disorders.
The positive effect of this diet is manifested in different ways, according to the individual body. Depending on the type of diet chosen, the first month of weight loss is likely to be 5 to 10 kg.
To save the result, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- In order to maintain the result and so that the body does not get stressed after completing the keto diet, it is necessary to gradually get out of this diet.
- Don't indulge in forbidden foods- the risk of regaining double the lost weight is too high.
- The amount of fat in the diet should be slightly reduced, and 5 g per day should be added to carbohydrates.
- With proper adherence to a ketogenic diet and periodic medical examination, it is possible to improve not only external data by resolving overweight, but also to radically change the quality of life in a positive direction.
Someone achieves a result in the second week, while someone has to wait up to three months. This variation in time does not indicate the inefficiency of the diet - in all likelihood it is necessary to adjust the ratio of nutrients in the diet.